Tanda budaya provinsi dan politik identitas

TitleTanda budaya provinsi dan politik identitas
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsKleden-Probonegoro N
JournalMasyarakat Indonesia : majalah ilmu-ilmu sosial Indonesia, ISSN 0125-9989
Volume29
Pagination39-58
Date Published29-09-06
Call NumberTA 4718
Keywordscase studies, cultural identity, Excerpta Indonesica, INDONESIA, Jakarta Raya, Kalimantan Selatan, Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat, performing arts, Political aspects, POLITICS, provinces
Abstract

Under the New Order, Indonesia's national motto 'Bhinneka Tunggal Ika' ('Unity in Diversity') increasingly came to emphasize the 'unity' aspect. The diversity of the country's myriad regional and local cultures were increasingly limited to expressions of material culture or artistic expression associated with a 'region', usually a province. This can be seen very clearly in the national theme park, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, in which a few forms of cultural expression have been chosen to represent provincial culture as a whole. This article looks at the process in which specific forms are chosen for this purpose through three case studies of regional/ethnic performing arts: 'Lenong ' (a form of Betawi theatre) in Jakarta, 'Gendang Beleq' in Lombok; and 'Mamanda' in South Kalimantan. The author argues that in Jakarta and Lombok, political considerations were dominant in the selection process. In Jakarta, a Betawi art form was chosen although - their claim of being Jakarta's oldest ethnic group notwithstanding - the Betawi are but a minority in a multiethnic and multicultural city; many inhabitants of Jakarta had never seen a Lenong performance before it was chosen as a cultural symbol. In Lombok, the ethnicity of the policy makers may have been an important factor in favouring the 'authentic' Gendeng Beleq, which in fact shows Balinese influences, over the Rudat art of the Muslim Sasak people. In South Kalimantan, such favouritism could be avoided by creating new art form incorporating elements from various traditions.